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  • Writer's pictureKatharine Korte Andrew

The Prosperous and “(Un)Fortunate” Life of Enos Barton: Founder of Western Electric and Sedgeley Farm

Enos Melancthon Barton (1842-1916) from Charter, Constitution, By-Laws, Membership List, Sixtieth Anniversary Year Book: Annual Report for the Year Ending October 31, 1916. Chicago, Illinois: Chicago Historical Society, 154.
Enos Melancthon Barton (1842-1916) from Charter, Constitution, By-Laws, Membership List, Sixtieth Anniversary Year Book: Annual Report for the Year Ending October 31, 1916. Chicago, Illinois: Chicago Historical Society, 154.

Enos Melancthon Barton (1842-1916) was an engineer and industrialist whose life story is a testament to the transformative power of innovation and perseverance. Barton rose from humble beginnings, demonstrating an early aptitude for the telegraph industry. His insight into the burgeoning field of electricity led him to co-found Western Electric Manufacturing Company, a venture that would revolutionize telecommunications and solidify his legacy as a key figure in the industry and as an important player in the development of modern communication systems. Beyond his professional achievements, Barton's personal life and contributions to his Hinsdale provide a rich narrative of dedication and resilience. Establishing Sedgeley Farm in Hinsdale, Illinois, Barton immersed himself in agricultural pursuits. However, in the last years of his life, Barton experienced a series of losses, disasters, and setbacks that greatly impacted the end of his years and earned him the nickname of the “(Un)Fortunate Mr. Barton” among Hinsdale’s historians.


Early Life

Enos Melancthon Barton (1876-1948), co-founder of Western Electric Manufacturing and owner of Sedgeley Farm in Hinsdale, was born in Lorraine, Jefferson County, New York on 2 December 1842 to Sidney William Barton and Fanny (Bliss) Barton.[1]


Barton was educated in the public and private schools in Lorrain, New York. Owing to his father’s ailing health, at a young age, Barton began working. He first worked at a country store and then became a telegraph messenger in the Watertown telegraph office, where he quickly became an expert as an operator and was occasionally left in charge of the office.[2]


In 1856, he secured a position in the post office at Watertown, New York. His next position was in the editorial office of the Jefferson County News, however, the work did not appeal to him as much as the telegraph business, so after spending another term at school, Barton went to Syracuse, New York, and entered the service as a telegraph company operator.[3]Shortly afterwards, he was transferred to Rochester and worked there as a night operator while attending a preparatory school. He spent one year at the University of Rochester, however, as working as a night operator and attending school was stressful, he gave up his university course just around the outbreak of the Civil War, and was sent to New York by the Western Union Telegraph Company to handle press reports[4] and relay messages from the front lines.[5]


Barton remained there for two years, during which he learned all about the telegraph business and at the same time completed his sophomore year at the University of New York.[6] After this, the company sent him back to Rochester and he was placed in charge of the day operations and worked there for five years. [7]


Career at the Western Electric Company

In 1869, the Western Union Company served notices that the salaries of its employees would be reduced by 10%, so Barton thought it was time to go in another direction.[8] Barton recognized the enormous possibilities in the field of electricity and formed a partnership with George Shawk of Cleveland, Ohio in 1869 to engage in the manufacturing of electrical supplies.[9] He bought a one-half interest in Shawk’s manufacturing company—however, even though Barton had great ambition, he had little money, so he borrowed $1,500, including $400 from his widowed mother who mortgaged the family farm in order to finance the purchase. Barton’s mother’s $400 mortgage has been described as “one of the best investments in history.”[10]

Shawk & Barton opened for business in January 1869 and had six employees and specialized in making telegraph instruments, burglar alarms, and other electrical devices.[11]


An early employee described Barton as “unassuming, quiet, with an almost uncanny grasp of business problems and an ability to analyze them.”[12]


Unfortunately, Shawk and Barton did not get along.[13] The following year, Shawk sold his share to Elisha Gray. Gray was born in 1835 in Ohio and was a “child prodigy who had built a working model of a telegraph transmitter before he was ten.”[14] By this time, Gray was a known inventor, and the now newly renamed firm of Gray & Barton soon became recognized as an important player in the electrical business field.


This same year, Gen. Anson Sager, a venture capitalist, joined the leadership of the company. Sager was born in upstate New York in 1825 and became a telegraph operator and then regional superintendent for Western Union. During the Civil War, he was in charge of the telegraph services for the Union Army, rising to the rank of Brigadier General.[15] Sager rejoined Western Union after the war as Vice President and General Superintendent, becoming one of the most powerful executives in the telegraph industry. In November 1869, he was looking for a reliable supplier for telegraph equipment and found one in Gray & Burton, and since he knew both Elisha Gray and Enos Barton personally, he invested $2,500 to buy a one-third interest in the partnership, but only on the condition that it moved to Chicago where his office was located.[16]


At the end of 1869, Gray & Barton moved to Chicago. Fortunately, the company escaped loss during the Great Chicago Fire. The firm prospered following the Chicago Fire, as they made replacement equipment for Western Union and fire alarms for other customers.[17]

On 29 March 1872, Gray & Barton became the Western Electric Manufacturing Company through consolidation with another of the Western Union Telegraph Company’s shops—original stockholders were Elisha Gray, Enos M. Barton, Gen. Anson Stager, and Milo G. Kellogg.[18]

Gray & Barton’s Headquarters at 479 State Street, on the corner of Eldridge, in 1870.
Gray & Barton’s Headquarters at 479 State Street, on the corner of Eldridge, in 1870.

In 1874, Western Electric obtained the exclusive Midwest marketing rights for the Sholes & Glidden typewriter, which was the first to use the modern QWERTY keyboard.[19] At this time, Western Electric also began a relationship with Thomas Edison, purchasing the manufacturing and distribution rights for his electric pen.[20] Additionally, the company and Gray, specifically, became involved in the development of the telephone.


In 1875, Gray sold his interests in Western Electric to Western Union in order to pursue independent research and to teach at Oberlin College. In 1876, Gray filed a caveat with the U.S. Patent Office, announcing his intention to soon patent an invention that would transmit vocal sounds telegraphically, dubbing his invention “the harmonic telegraph.” Unfortunately, just hours earlier, Alexander Graham Bell applied for the patent for the same idea, which became known as the telephone.[21] Bell and his American Bell Telephone Company (predecessor of AT&T) sued Western Union and Western Electric claiming patent infringement and the legal battle ended in 1879 with Western Union withdrawing from the telephone market and Bell acquiring the majority share of Western Electric in 1881.[22] The following year, American Bell and Western Electric signed an agreement in which Western Electric became the sole supplier of the Bell telephones and equipment, while also retaining its general electrical business.[23]


By the 1880s, Western Electric became “the largest electrical manufacturing company in the United States.”[24]


The history of Western Electric includes much more than just the manufacturing of telephones and associated equipment, it was also a large producer of general electrical goods; was at one time the country’s largest jobber of electrical supplies; and the research and development by Western’s scientists, engineers and inventors led the company into other fields including radio broadcasting, public address systems, sound systems for talking movies, hearing aids, railroad dispatching services, and the orthophonic phonograph.[25]


While living in Hinsdale, in 1905, Barton decided on the site for a new manufacturing plant on Cicero Avenue on the Western edge of Chicago, which later became known as Hawthorne Works of the Western Electric Company.[26]Hawthorne Works was in operation until 1983, when it closed as a result of the divestiture of AT&T and the breakup of the Bell System.


Hawthorne Works, circa 1907. From “Hawthorne Works: For the Manufacture of Power Apparatus”.
Hawthorne Works, circa 1907. From “Hawthorne Works: For the Manufacture of Power Apparatus”.

Because of the growing demands of the Bell System, Western Electric gradually rid itself of all operations not directly connected with the Bell System needs.[27] It eventually became nearly wholly owned by AT&T. In 1925, the Bell Telephone Laboratories was formed by the merger of the research and engineering departments of Western Electric and AT&T, and that same year, the electrical equipment distribution business was spun off from Western Electric and organized into a separate company, Graybar Electric Company, in honor of the company’s founders, Elisha Gray and Enos Barton.


In 1908, Barton retired from Western Electric after becoming president of Western Electric in 1887.[28]


Life in Hinsdale

After Barton and Gray moved to Chicago in 1869, Barton bought and built Sedgeley House (also known as Tudor House) and Sedgeley Farm, where he raised French Coach Horses and Brown Swiss Cattle. His business partner’s son, E. E. Gray also lived in Hinsdale during the early 1900s and raised trotting horses near the Highlands.[29]


Barton’s Sedgeley estate was the family’s summer and vacation home, and they maintained another residence in Chicago until 1905 when they moved to Hinsdale full time.[30]


Barton was essential in bringing electricity to Hinsdale in 1895. The effort to electrify Hinsdale was started by several civic-minded residents who petitioned the Board for a franchise, which was quickly approved, since most of the applicants were members of the board. Work began in late 1895 and the system was built by Western Electric, whose president, Barton, submitted (conveniently) the lowest bid.[31] Barton’s home and Sedgley Farm became the first residence in Hinsdale to be connected to electricity.


While in Hinsdale, Barton was not only the head of the Western Electric Co., but also the Director of the Merchants Loan and Trust Company of Chicago, and other corporations.[32]

Barton was a trustee of the University of Chicago, associated member of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, and member of the Chicago, Union League, Commercial and Quadrangle clubs of Chicago.[33] He was also a member of the Chicago Historical Society.[34] Barton’s family were members of the Congregational Church in Hinsdale and Enos was one of the founding members of the Hinsdale Golf Club and a member of the Hinsdale Club. Barton also served as a time as the Vice-President of the Brown Swiss Cattle Breeders’ Association and President of the French Coach Horse Stud Society of America.[35]


While working at Western Electric, Barton would take the Burlington train from Hinsdale to the Western Electric offices at 500 South Clinton Street in Chicago.

 

Sedgeley Farm

Sedgeley Farm, Hinsdale Historical Society Photograph.
Sedgeley Farm, Hinsdale Historical Society Photograph.

Sedgeley Farm once occupied 1,100 acres south of 55th street between Madison Street and County Line Road in Hinsdale.[36] At Sedgeley Farm, Barton bred French Coach Horses and Brown Swiss Cattle. Barton planted part of the land with corn and some of the first Alfalfa planted in the state of Illinois.[37]


Barton’s son, Dr. Evan Barton, recalled that his father would “pay us maybe a nickel a row for pulling mustard weed out of a corn field. We’d go down a row of corn, that would be 5 cents. We’d come back a row, that’d be another 5 cents.”[38]


The Home

Sedgeley House, also called Tudor House, was built by Barton to replace an earlier farmhouse and was eventually moved across County Line Road and became one of the residence houses for the workers in the dairy on the farm.[39]


French Coach Horses

In 1893, Barton purchased two French Coach fillies and one stallion from a Mr. Dunham at Oak Lawn. One of these fillies, named Palestine, became a champion coach mare at the Chicago Horse Show in 1897.[40] The stallion, Inkermann, took first prize at the World’s Columbian Exposition in 1893, and took place in numerous other shows, coming only second to his sire, Indre, at the Chicago Horse Show of 1897. Indre was awarded the “Grand Prize of Honor” by M.M. de Humeres, Government of France Director in 1893.[41]


Full List of Indre’s Winnings from “French Coach Horses at Sedgeley Farm” (1900), page 8.
Full List of Indre’s Winnings from “French Coach Horses at Sedgeley Farm” (1900), page 8.
Photograph of Barton’s Indre from “French Coach Horses at Sedgeley Farm” (1900), page 9.
Photograph of Barton’s Indre from “French Coach Horses at Sedgeley Farm” (1900), page 9.

Indre foaled on 2 April 1886, bred by M. Brio of Calvados, France, and imported by Barton in 1889.[42]


Once Barton moved to Hinsdale, many of his horses also made the move to Sedgeley Farm. Dr. Evan Barton, Enos’ son, recalled:

“As I said there were a lot of horses and carriages. At one point we acquired an expert coachman and perhaps a groom… There was one, I didn’t know him, but the story is told of him, he liked big words and when my father complained of the cost of the forage for the horses, the coachman told him, ‘These horses have an “avaricious appetite.”’”[43]

Many Hinsdaleans of the time remember Barton’s horses, including Sarah Drehr who recalled:

“Mrs. Barton each evening would drive the Barton Tally Ho to the train to meet her husband, the Tally Ho drawn by their beautiful French horses, with footmen in red coats blowing horns all the way.”[44]

Enos Barton’s daughter, Katherine Barton, was a great horsewoman and had a prize horse that she road for quite a while. She could also drive four horses—four-in-hand—as well as “unicorn,” where there is one horse in front of two others—quite a feat at the time.[45]


Brown Swiss Cattle & The Dairy

On Sedgeley Farm, Benton bred Brown Swiss Cattle, which are a bread of cattle native to Switzerland. The first Brown Swiss cattle were brought to the United States in 1869 by Henry M. Clark of Massachusetts.[46] Barton imported the first group of his cattle from Switzerland in 1890,[47] and exhibited the Brown Swiss Cattle in 1893 at the Chicago World’s Fair.[48]


Barton’s son, Dr. Evan Barton, later recalled “he [Enos Barton] became enamored of the Borwn Swiss breed after travelling in Europe for the Western Electric Company.”[49]


Barton was quoted in The Swiss Record (1910) on his first importation:

“During a visit in Switzerland I was attracted by the fine flavor of the milk and butter used at the Alpine hotels, and was led to investigate the source whence the supply was obtained. So pleased was I with the appearance of the cattle, their docile dispotion, the quantity and quality of the milk, that I purchased fourteen head of the best that could be obtained and founded the Sedgeley Herd at Hinsdale.”[50]

In 1906, Barton imported an additional 34 cows and five bulls to Sedgeley Farm. One of these was a bull named Junker 2365 which became the Grand Champion at National Dairy Shows in 1907, 1908, and 1909.[51]


The United States government banned the importation of Brown Swiss Cattle shortly after Barton’s 1906 import due to hoof and mouth disease.


Image of McAlpine, first in class at Illinois State Fair. From Charles Summer Plumb’s (1920) Types and breeds of farm animals. Page 470.
Image of McAlpine, first in class at Illinois State Fair. From Charles Summer Plumb’s (1920) Types and breeds of farm animals. Page 470.

Barton’s herd eventually grew to around 230 cattle, which required the farm to begin selling milk.


Family Life

Barton was married twice. He first married Katherine “Kitty” Sayles Richardson in 1869 in Rochester, New York. She was the daughter of Professor John F. Richardson of Rochester, New York.


Katherine Sayles Richardson Barton.

Together, they had three children:

1.     Alvin L. Barton (1876-1948) married Ruby McClure. He graduated from the University of Chicago in 1898 and went on to Cornell University for graduate school. Like his maternal grandfather, Alvin went into teaching and taught at Christian College, Albion College, and in Detroit public schools. He passed away in 1948 in Missouri.

2.     Katherine Sayles Barton (1878-1932) spent the rest of her life in Hinsdale. She married Hinsdalean Robert William Childs, son of Robert Andrew Childs (1845-1915) who was a U.S. Representative and owner of the Robert A. and Mary Childs House in Hinsdale, which is on the National Register of Historic Places. Katherine also attended the University of Chicago and was involved in many of Hinsdale’s community groups.

3.     Clara May Barton (1886-1962) married Chester Whitney Wright who was an American economic historian and Professor at the University of Chicago. Wright authored Economic History of the United States in 1941.They lived in Chicago for the majority of their lives.


Enos’ first wife, Katherine (Richardson) Barton, passed away in 1898 after a several months illness at the Milwaukee Sanitarium.[52]


Enos M. Barton married his second wife, Marcy Converse Rust, on 6 October 1899 in London, England. Mary was the daughter of Sarah Sterling De Forest and Maj. Henry Appleton Rust. Maj. Henry Appleton Rust entered the 27thIllinois Infantry at the outbreak of the Civil War as an Adjutant and was promoted to Captain and mustered out as Major after three years of service.[53]


Enos had three more children with Mary Converse Rust Barton:

1.     Malcolm Sterling Barton (1902-1935) was a lawyer with the firm Sanders, Childs, Bobb and Wescott. He was a graduate of Williams College and studied law at the University of Chicago. He married Andreina Materasse. They lived in Evanston until the time of his death at age 32 years old.

2.     Dr. Evan Mansfield Barton (1903-1996) graduated from Lyons Township High School in La Grange. He received his bachelor’s degree from Williams College and his medical degree from John Hopkins University. Dr. Barton was a specialist in internal medicine and rheumatology. He was affiliated with the Rush-Presbyterian-St. Luke’s Medical Center and a full professor at Rush University, as well as the former president of the Chicago Society of Internal Medicine. He married Jane Purvis High.

3.     Gilbert Rust Barton (1906-1965) graduated from William College and married Mary Jane Burr of Hinsdale in 1937. He was a zone manager of Investors Diversified Services, Inc., member and former secretary of the Glen Lake (Michigan) Yacht Club, and a director of the Ruth Lake country Club.


Enos M. Barton’s business associates crossed paths with the family as well. Mr. Vail of the American Telephone and Telegraph Company gifted Dr. Evan Barton and Malcolm Barton each a pony in their childhood, which they road in Hinsdale’s Fourth of July parades.[54]


Disasters and Bad Luck

While Barton’s life was prosperous and successful, beginning in the late 1890s, Barton experienced a series of tragedies in his life that caused severe distress and depression for him until his death in 1916.


His first wife, Katherine S. Richardson Barton, unexpectedly passed away in 1898 from a months-long illness. While he remarried a few years later, it is certain that the passing of his wife took a toll on Barton.


1908 and 1913: Fires at Sedgley Farm

Two fires seriously damaged the farm. The first was a lightning fire on 20 June 1908, in which, in addition to the loss of six buildings and one farm hand, four prized horses were killed. High winds accompanying the storm prevented the firefighters from stopping the blaze. The second fire that occurred in 1913 destroyed a boiler room, ice house, and bottling plant valued at $15,000.


1914: Hoof and Mouth Disease

In 1914, there was an epidemic of hoof and mouth disease across the country. Barton’s son, Dr. Evan Barton, recalled:

“In 1914 there was a disease of cloven hoofed cattle. It spread because there was no known cause at the time, the cause had not been identified, and it was very infectious. Some of the cattle died from it and many others recovered. What happened was that there was a national livestock exhibition in Chicago and 30 or so of the prize bulls and cows were in that show and the rest were out in Hinsdale on the dairy farm. These cows got the disease and most of them recovered. It was a serious disease and the government didn’t wish it spread. The laws at that time allowed them to destroy any herd that was infected. As a result, even after the cows had recovered from the disease and seemed perfectly healthy, they were condemned. A large trench was dug near the dairy but probably south of it and the cattle were brought up to it, shot and buried there. This was in 1914 and what the children [later in the 1980s] found were the bones left from this mass burial of the Brown Swiss cattle.” [55]

In this oral history interview, the interviewer asked Dr. Barton, “I supposed your father was very upset and distraught when they had to kill all the herd. How did he take it? What happened?” to which Dr. Barton responded:

“It was a great shock to him. He was at the time about 71 years old and had serious Parkinson’s Disease so that he had a tremor and needed help dressing and undressing but mentally was quite sharp and unimpaired. We were spending winters down in Biloxi, Mississippi. The news of all this came down from Chicago and did not help his condition at all. For the rest of his life, the next two years, it was obvious it had made a great impression on him.”[56]

Ed Rediehs recalled:

“Mr. Barton down at 60th and Garfield Street had very expensive and full blooded cows that came over and they were his pride and joy. They condemned and quarantined them. They dug a hole in the ground and drove those cows in so tight they couldn't even fall down when they shot them. Then they shot them all and that almost drove Mr. Barton crazy.”[57]

After the destruction of the herd, Barton gave up on breeding his Brown Swiss Cattle back and the Guernsey Farm took over the dairy operation and barns.[58]


1915: The Eastland Disaster

On 24 July 1915, a disaster rocked all of Chicagoland. The SS Eastland was a passenger ship based in Chicago and used for tours. On this day, the ship rolled over onto its side while tied to a dock in the Chicago River, killing 844 passengers and crew in what was the largest loss of life from a single shipwreck on the Great Lakes. Many of those who died were Czech workers employed at Western Electric’s Hawthorne Works.


Barton was deeply impacted by the Eastland Disaster and it haunted him for the remaining years of his life. He was not impacted by the disaster out of his sense of leadership and care for the workers of Western Electric, but also his care for the employees at Sedgeley Farm—Robert Jungwirth, was an employee at Sedgeley Farm and lost two daughters in the disaster.[59] The disaster was felt close to home. In addition to the two Jungwirth girls, Martha Patrovski of Hinsdale[60]and Mrs. Barbara Wyllie Lukens (formerly of Hinsdale) also perished in the disaster.[61]


Death and Legacy

Enos M. Barton passed away at his winter home on West Beach in Biloxi, Mississippi on 3 May 1916.[62] Upon his death in 1916, Enos Barton’s estate was valued at $1,040,000.[63] Today, his estate would have been worth approximately $29,966,216.51 in 2024.


Western Electric Manufacturing Company became one of the world’s largest manufacturers of telephone and electrical products. Western Electric thrived under Barton's leadership, securing exclusive manufacturing rights for significant inventions and becoming a crucial supplier to the Bell Telephone Company, which propelled it to the forefront of the telecommunications industry.


Barton's legacy extends beyond Western Electric to his personal endeavors at Sedgeley Farm in Hinsdale, Illinois. There, he bred champion French Coach Horses and Brown Swiss Cattle, contributing to agricultural advancements. His civic contributions included bringing electricity to Hinsdale and supporting local infrastructure. Despite facing personal tragedies, such as the death of his first wife and significant losses due to fires and a hoof-and-mouth disease outbreak at his farm, Barton's impact remained profound. His innovative spirit and leadership not only advanced telecommunications but also left a lasting mark on the Hinsdale community. Barton's life, marked by both prosperity and misfortune, underscores his resilience and lasting influence on multiple fields.


Bibliography

Bakken, Timothy H. 1976. Hinsdale. Hinsdale, Illinois: J. Peter Teschner, Timothy H. Bakken, Kristi Cook, and the Hinsdale Doings.

Barton, Dr. Evan. 1989. Interview. By Hinsdale Historical Society. Item B-1, Oral History Interviews; Hinsdale Historical Society Archives, Hinsdale, Illinois.

Briggs, H. M. and D. M. Briggs. 1980. “Brown Swiss Cattle,” found in Modern Breeds of Livestock. Fourth Edition. New York: MacMillan Publishing Co., accessed through Breeds of Livestock (Oklahoma State University), https://breeds.okstate.edu/cattle/brown-swiss-cattle.html

Buchanan, John. 1966. “The Western Electric Historical Library,” The American Archivist 29(1): 55-59.

Charter, Constitution, By-Laws, Membership List, Sixtieth Anniversary Year Book: Annual Report for the Year Ending October 31, 1916. Chicago, Illinois: Chicago Historical Society.

Chicago Tribune. Chicago, Illinois, 1870-1990.

Drehr, Sarah. N.d. Interview. By the Hinsdale Historical Society. Item B-1.5. Oral History Interviews; Hinsdale Historical Society Archives, Hinsdale, Illinois.

Dugan, Hugh G.. 1949. Village on the County Line. Hinsdale, Illinois: Hugh G. Dugan.

French Coach Horses at Sedgeley Farm. Chicago: Harmegines & Howell, c. 1900.

French Coach Horse Stud Book of America. 1906. Volume I. Cedar Rapids, Iowa: The Republican Press and French Coach Horse Society of America.

“Hawthorne Works: For the Manufacture of the Power Apparatus.” ca. 1907. Chicago, Illinois: Western Electric Manufacturing Company.

Johnson, Rossiter, ed. 1898. A History of the World’s Columbian Exposition Held in Chicago in 1893. Volume III. New York: D. Appleton and Company.

Miller, Janet. 2024. “From the Archives: A Brief History of Electricity in Hinsdale.” Hinsdale Historical Society Blog.www.hinsdalehistory.org.

Nixon, Charles D, ed. 1910. The Swiss Record. Supplement to Volume I. Oswego, New York: Brown Swiss Cattle Breeders’ Association.

Plumb, Charles Summer. 1920. Types and breeds of farm animals. Revised Edition. Boston: Ginn and Company.

Rediehs, Ed. n.d. Interview. By Hinsdale Historical Society. Item R-3, Oral History Interviews; Hinsdale Historical Society Archives, Hinsdale, Illinois.

Sterling, Albert Mack. The Sterling Genealogy. Library Edition. Volume 2. Baltimore: The Grafton Press, 1909.

The Hinsdale Doings. Hinsdale, Illinois, 1898-1990.

The National Cyclopaedia of American Biography. Volume 14. New York: James T. White & Company, 1910. 110.

Timeless Values, Enduring Innovation: The Graybar Story. 2009. Old Lyme, Connecticut: Greenwich Publishing Group.

Notes

[1] The National Cyclopaedia of American Biography. Volume 14. New York: James T. White & Company, 1910. 110.

[2] The National Cyclopaedia of American Biography 1910, 110.

[3] The National Cyclopaedia of American Biography 1910, 110.

[4] The National Cyclopaedia of American Biography 1910, 110.

[5] Timeless Values, Enduring Innovation: The Graybar Story. 2009. Old Lyme, Connecticut: Greenwich Publishing Group, 19.

[6] The National Cyclopaedia of American Biography 1910, 110.

[7] The National Cyclopaedia of American Biography 1910, 110.

[8] Timeless Values, Enduring Innovation: The Graybar Story 2009, 19.

[9] The National Cyclopaedia of American Biography 1910, 110.

[10] Timeless Values, Enduring Innovation: The Graybar Story 2009, 20.

[11] Timeless Values, Enduring Innovation: The Graybar Story 2009, 20.

[12] Timeless Values, Enduring Innovation: The Graybar Story 2009, 19.

[13] Timeless Values, Enduring Innovation: The Graybar Story 2009, 20.

[14] Timeless Values, Enduring Innovation: The Graybar Story 2009, 20.

[15] Timeless Values, Enduring Innovation: The Graybar Story 2009, 21.

[16] Timeless Values, Enduring Innovation: The Graybar Story 2009, 21.

[17] Timeless Values, Enduring Innovation: The Graybar Story 2009, 20.

[18] The National Cyclopaedia of American Biography 1910, 110.

[19] Timeless Values, Enduring Innovation: The Graybar Story 2009, 23.

[20] Timeless Values, Enduring Innovation: The Graybar Story 2009, 24.

[21] Timeless Values, Enduring Innovation: The Graybar Story 2009, 26.

[22] Buchanan, John. 1966. “The Western Electric Historical Library,” The American Archivist 29(1): 55.

[23] Buchanan 1966, 55.

[24] Buchanan 1966, 55.

[25] Buchanan 1966, 55.

[26] Dugan, 1949, 123.

[27] Buchanan 1966, 55-56.

[28] Timeless Values, Enduring Innovation: The Graybar Story 2009, 32.

[29] Dugan, Hugh G.. 1949. Village on the County Line. Hinsdale, Illinois: Hugh G. Dugan. 123.

[30] “Evan Barton,” The Doings (Hinsdale, Illinois), 22 May 1996.

[31] Miller, Janet. 2024. “From the Archives: A Brief History of Electricity in Hinsdale.” Hinsdale Historical Society Blog. www.hinsdalehistory.org.

[32] The National Cyclopaedia of American Biography 1910, 110.

[33] The National Cyclopaedia of American Biography 1910, 110.

[34] Charter, Constitution, By-Laws, Membership List, Sixtieth Anniversary Year Book: Annual Report for the Year Ending October 31, 1916. Chicago, Illinois: Chicago Historical Society, 155-157.

[35] French Coach Horse Stud Book of America. 1906. Volume I. Cedar Rapids, Iowa: The Republican Press and French Coach Horse Society of America. 4.

[36] French Coach Horses at Sedgeley Farm. Chicago: Harmegines & Howell, c. 1900. 3.

[37] Barton, Dr. Evan. 1989. Interview. By Hinsdale Historical Society. Item B-1, Oral History Interviews; Hinsdale Historical Society Archives, Hinsdale, Illinois. 1.

[38] Barton 1989, 12.

[39] Barton 1989, 3.

[40] French Coach Horses at Sedgeley Farm. Chicago: Harmegines & Howell, c. 1900. 3.

[41] French Coach Horses at Sedgeley Farm. Chicago: Harmegines & Howell, c. 1900. 8.

[42] French Coach Horses at Sedgeley Farm. Chicago: Harmegines & Howell, c. 1900. 9.

[43] Barton 1989, 15.

[44] Drehr, Sarah. N.d. Interview. By the Hinsdale Historical Society. Item B-1.5. Oral History Interviews; Hinsdale Historical Society Archives, Hinsdale, Illinois.

[45] Barton 1989, 15.

[46] Briggs, H. M. and D. M. Briggs. 1980. “Brown Swiss Cattle,” found in Modern Breeds of Livestock. Fourth Edition. New York: MacMillan Publishing Co., accessed through Breeds of Livestock (Oklahoma State University), https://breeds.okstate.edu/cattle/brown-swiss-cattle.html

[47] Plumb, Charles Summer. 1920. Types and breeds of farm animals. Revised Edition. Boston: Ginn and Company, 464.

[48] Johnson, Rossiter, ed. 1898. A History of the World’s Columbian Exposition Held in Chicago in 1893. Volume III. New York: D. Appleton and Company. 70.

[49] Barton 1989, 3.

[50] Nixon, Charles D, ed. 1910. The Swiss Record. Supplement to Volume I. Oswego, New York: Brown Swiss Cattle Breeders’ Association. vi.

[51] Briggs and Briggs, 1980.

[52] “Mrs. E. M. Barton Passes Away,” The Doings (Hinsdale, Illinois), 20 August 1898.

[53] Sterling, Albert Mack. The Sterling Genealogy. Library Edition. Volume 2. Baltimore: The Grafton Press, 1909. 723.

[54] Barton 1989, 10.

[55] Barton 1989, 5.

[56] Barton 1989, 16.

[57] Rediehs, Ed. n.d. Interview. By Hinsdale Historical Society. Item R-3, Oral History Interviews; Hinsdale Historical Society Archives, Hinsdale, Illinois.

[58] Barton 1989, 17.

[59] Bakken, Timothy H. 1976. Hinsdale. Hinsdale, Illinois: J. Peter Teschner, Timothy H. Bakken, Kristi Cook, and the Hinsdale Doings. 256.

[60] “Identified victims of the Eastland—Revised to 4 a.m. today,” Chicago Tribune, 26 July 1915, page 7.

[61] Bakken 1976, 256.

[62] “Taken by Death at His Winter Home,” Sun Herald (Biloxi, Mississippi), 3 May 1916, page 1.

[63] “Enos Barton’s Will Filed,” Chicago Tribune, 12 May 1916, 10.

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